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Chemistry, a form of science that deals with the compositions, properties, the construction of matter (well-defined as elements and compounds), the alterations they experience through reaction to form different substances, and energies that is discharged or absorbed throughout these procedures. Every material, whether by nature’s occurrence or through artificially production, contains at least one of the hundred-odd type of particles that have been recognized as elements. These elements, in fact, are the composition of basic atoms, and each element is made up entirely by one type of atom. These elements, in fact, are the rudimentary structure blocks of chemical materials; for instance, there is no amount of mercury, oxygen, or gold, that can be smaller than a particle of that material. The study of chemistry is not only limited to the subatomic domain, but also including the characteristic of atoms, as well as experimenting with combining them, and how the awareness of these properties could be used to attain many purposes.

Chemistry by Marcin Wlchary

The excessive challenge in chemistry is the progress of coherent clarification of the behaviour of elements, why do they exist that way, what gives them their stable properties, as well as how chemical reactions among diverse materials can bring around the creation of new materials, and sometimes the destruction of one. From the initial attempt of understanding toward having the full knowledge of the material world, chemists have struggled in their quest of obtaining the fruitful concepts of matter, of which, reasonably explain both, the properties, and the changes.

In chemistry, when it come to particles and changes, there are two type of changes. Physical changes, of which, can be classified as changes where the block of particles(a material) changes in shape or form, but the atomic structure of the particle had not been modified. Physical changes of substances are usually reversible, nevertheless, it maybe hard to reverse the state of the material back to look exactly the same as before the occurrence of the changes. For example, whether in the form of gas, water, or ice, the structure of the H2O molecule does not change, the difference lie within their arrangement, energy, and movements. Besides that, whether in whichever form, the weight of the H2O molecules will stay the same. Hence, 100 grams of water will yield 100 grams of gas or ice, and vice-versa.

After physical changes we would have chemical changes. Chemical changes, of which, can be defined as changes where new particles are formed, and chemical changes are usually not reversible. During chemical changes, whether through atoms or ions regrouping, the atomic structure of the particles do alter. Some chemical changes can be initiated by applying heat to the particles, while others can be initiated by mixing the particles together, and whether by which initiators, sometimes particles can gain or lose energy during chemical changes. The time it take for chemical changes to fully completed can vary greatly, For example, it can take a long time for metal to rust, nevertheless, nuclear fission can occur in a flash of a second.

It is sometimes hard for the naked eye to completely observe everything that happen during chemical changes. For example, when burning gasoline, carbon dioxide and water vapors are produced from the chemical changes, nevertheless, to the naked eye, we may only see the burning flaming and the disappearing of gasoline. Some chemical changes can fully be observed. For example, in cooking, while cooking an egg, we can fully observe the form of the egg changes from being something that is liquid to something that is solid. Observable, nevertheless, we can’t turn a cooked egg into an uncooked egg. As same as physical changes, particle can’t dissipate or come into existence from nothing, they can only react to one another to become something new, and therefore, the end product(s) that resulted from chemical changes will weight the same as all the materials that involves in the chemical changes.

Technically, it is important to understand the properties of each element and how they react to changes, and from the understanding of those fruitful studies, we can synthesis new material, discover new energy sources, or building better technological products. Therefore, chemistry includes both, the research of atomic structures, and the building of substances through changes. Besides those, there are other studies, including, but is not limited to the study of the variety of connections among substances that could lead to sudden and frequent violent reaction. Some of the changes of particles that may had provided great benefits for human society is nuclear fission. Whether for a peaceful purpose as an energy source for producing electricity, or for a destructive purpose as a nuclear bomb, nuclear fission is a powerful and useful technology that yielded by the fruitful understanding of fission reaction, of which, the study of chemistry’s chemical changes.

Chemistry is a branch of science that have a large variety of branches that deal in many subjects. For example, “organic chemistry” is a branch of chemistry that mainly deal with carbon based structures. Another branch of chemistry is “physical chemistry”, of which, deals with the physical structure of chemical compounds, also, physical chemistry have many sub-branches that deal in a variety of subject. As to speak, atom and particles are the building block of life, and each branch of chemistry studies the building block of different part of life. For example, fermentation, cooking, as well as metallurgy, glass making, are all procedures, of which, had been dated back to the beginning of civilization, and they are all associated with chemistry.

As of today, in modern chemistry, vinyl, semiconductors, liquid crystals, and superconductors signify the fruitfulness of chemical expertise. The 20th era has seen empirical developments in the understanding of the wonderfulness of active organisms’s compound chemistry, as well as a molecular clarification of health, and also diseases. Besides that, scientists in the field of chemistry is being helped by innovated advance technological tools which aid them in the studies of materials that are as small as smaller than single particle, to something as big and complex as DNA, of which, comprises of more than a billion of atoms. New materials can even be designed to bear preferred characteristics before being created. The amount of which chemical information continues to accrue is extraordinary. Over time more than millions of diverse chemical substances, both from nature synthesis and artificial synthesis, have been branded and produced. ChemCats is an online chemical catalog, of which, is a database that contains information on more than 100 million substances. Hence, the developments of chemistry of the 21st century holds excessive promises.

Chemistry by Matt Harasymczuk

Chemistry by Matt Harasymczuk.

Chemistry in the 21st century

Some of the inventions of the late 20th era, of which, became the key stone foundation for other important inventions of the 21st century to thrive on, does indeed, deserve to be mentioned. One of them is the wonder of superconductivity (the aptitude to conduct power with no resistance), which was revealed in 1911 on temperatures that is very close to absolute zero (−273.15 °C, 0 K, or −459.67 °F). In 1986, a Swiss and a German chemist revealed that the superconducting transition temperature in Lanthanum Barium Copper Oxide was at 35K. Since then, scientists have found other superconducting material. One of them is Hydrogen Sulphide(H2S), which is the highest temperature superconductor known to date as of 2017. Hydrogen Sulphide is a superconductor at the high temperature of 203K, which is a temperature that is a lot higher than the temperature of liquid nitrogen, which is at 77.2K. In addition to concentrate their researches into finding of many new superconductor materials, much of the other focuses that scientists had in mind were concentrate toward researching on concrete information in regard to the application of superconductivity. As comparable to the standard of how fast other technologies evolve, chemists researches that involve superconductivity, were indeed, fruitful researches that beard a tremendous amount of useful information. From electric motors, electric generators to magnetic confinement fusion reactors, magnetic resonance imaging, or simply accelerating a particle, all of these technology and many more, one way or another, utilize superconductivity technology within them.

One of the major keystone foundation of today technology that was discovered by chemists of the 19th century is Electron. Scientists knew about electricity and worked with it for many years, but didn’t actually understand it, or knew the composition of its current. In fact, the ancient Greek discovered static electricity around 600 BC, nevertheless, they never knew that it was static electricity that they discovered. Then come the electricity experiment of Ben Franklin in 1752, of which, comprises of a key that attached to a kite which floated in the sky during a storm. The experiment of Ben Franklin proves that spark electricity and lightning electricity are the same.

Even though there were many findings throughout millenniums, electricity still couldn’t be put to a useful purpose, and that is because there is no viable method that can produce electricity. That viable method of producing electricity was introduced by Michael Faraday whom created a crude power generator in 1831. Then come the invention of the first practical useful light bulb by Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison. Although in two difference country, both Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison came up with the light bulb in around almost the same time, and they both obtained a U.S patented on the technology in 1880. Swan and Edison ended up became partners in “The Edison and Swan United Electric Company”, but that is because of the result from a messy court case. With the Swan and Edison story at mainstream, the story of Humphrey Davy, an English scientist whom discovered the actual first light bulb in 1800 seem to be overshadowed. That, indeed, maybe because the first light bulb was not at the capability of usefulness for much regular purpose. With all of that and many discoveries in regard to electricity, scientists still didn’t know the composition of electric’s current, nevertheless, all of that changed in 1897 by Sir Joseph John Thomson, of whom, found out that electric currents were, in fact, composed of moving electrons. Since the major of the 21st century technologies require electricity to operate, the understanding of electricity, its current and electron is, in fact, a very important discovery.

The evolution of chemistry, just like the evolution of Scientology, did have some messy eras before they became an influential part of society. Just in 1794, Lavoisier, an important chemist that have great contribution to early chemists’ researches was executed in France. Then a century before that, the physical realism of particles was still suspected by some. Then there maybe a time where chemistry, or alchemy to be precise, was considered as a form of witchcraft. Nowadays, with many accomplishment and fact finding by chemists ranging from studying nature formed particles to creating new artificial one, chemistry had became an important and trustful part of today science. Hence, the antiquity of chemistry is an astonishing story.

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